I have concluded a treaty of commercial alliance with Sultan Abdul Rahman
He was the younger half-brother of Tengku Long, who later became Sultan Hussein Mohamed Shah through the 1819 treaty of Singapore. After their father Sultan Mahmud Shah III died, the brothers were in a succession dispute over the Johor-Riau-Lingga Sultanate. In 1811, Abdul Rahman had the upper hand and was installed as the Sultan. When William Farquhar was in Lingga, Sultan Abdul Rahman—the Sultan of Johor—told him to go to Riau to negotiate a treaty with the Raja Muda, Raja Ja’afar, who held political authority.
, King of Johor, Pahang and its Dependencies. According to Article ii of the treaty, vessels and merchandise belonging to British subjects or those under the protection of the Honourable East India Company shall always enjoy privileges and advantages in the ports and dominions of Johor, Pahang, Lingga, Riau
Following the 1699 killing of Sultan Mahmud III, the Johor-Riau-Lingga empire weakened. The Orang Laut did not feel any allegiance to the new king so vassals broke away and the Johor River base was abandoned. The port settlement that once flourished at the north bank of the Singapore River was no longer thriving. The centre of the Sultanate shifted to Riau and Lingga, beginning a new era.
, and others subject to his Majesty—now or any time hereafter. For all who were worried about the future of the British in the Eastern Seas, this is my gift to you as my stint in Melaka comes to an end.